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Frequently Asked Questions
(also know as "Pneumatomachians").

Q. 1. Can you summarize the heresy of "Macedonians?"

A. 1. Bishop Macedonius I was the founder of the Macedonian heresy. He was a Greek bishop of Constantinople from 342 up to 346, and from 351 until 360. He inspired the establishment of the Macedonians, a sect that was later declared heretical.

Macedonius was opposed by the Cappadocian Fathers and condemned at the First Council of Constantinople.

The Cappadocian Fathers were Basil the Great (330-379), who was bishop of Caesarea; Basil's younger brother Gregory of Nyssa (c.332-395), who was bishop of Nyssa; and a close friend, Gregory of Nazianzus (329-389), who became the Patriarch of Constantinople. The Cappadocia region, in modern-day Turkey, was an early site of Christian activity, with several missions by Paul in this region.

The Cappadocian Fathers advanced the development of early Christian theology, for example the doctrine of the Trinity, and are highly respected as saints in both Western and Eastern churches.

The Macedonians, while accepting the divinity of Jesus Christ as affirmed at Nicea in 325, they denied that of the Holy Spirit which they saw as a creation of the Son, and a servant of the Father and the Son.

For this reason, the Second Ecumenical Council proclaimed the following in the Nicene Creed: “And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, Who proceedeth from the Father, Who with the Father and the Son is equally worshipped and glorified, Who spake by the Prophets.”

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