Q. 1. Can you tell me how the Catholic Church determines from year to year on which date Easter will be?
A. 1. In A.D. 325, the Council of Nicaea, proclaimed that Easter Sunday would always be the first Sunday after the full moon. That means Easter Sunday can never happen before March 22 or after April 25th.
Prior to that, the date for Easter was not the same everywhere. And sometime it was not on a Sunday.
The Catholics and Protestants celebrate Easter on the same date. Such is not the case for the majority of the Oriental Churches who go by a different calendar.