Q. 1. What is an "Exarchate?"
A. 1. An "Exarchate" is a church that has literally separated from its Patriarch. It is a church without the blessing of a Patriarch.
An example, the Bulgarian Exarchate, was the official name of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church before its autocephaly was recognized by the Ecumenical See in 1945 and the Bulgarian Patriarchate was restored in 1953.